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yong scholers to the vniuersities. Of whom must nedes cum 0 oure Diuines, Lawyers, and Physicions.'
The reader well remember how Marlowe's Faustus as a Doctor of Theology surveys knowledge, first considering logic, the basis of all knowledge, then the consequent professions of physic, law, and divinity; and after the survey decides for magic. Mulcaster sums up the underlying philosophy of the system thus,
As for the qualities of the minde, whether theie tech vertewousnesse in lining, or skilfulnesse in learning, as arts, sciences, professions, or whatsoeuer else, by whatsoever term or title else, do theie not euerie one most apparentlie procede from reading and writing, as from their naturall principles, the one for deliuerie, the other for receit? whether theie trauell in language for it self, wherein grammer, rhetorik, logik, and their deriuatiues clame interest, or shew knowledge by language in anie other facultie. Where vnder be contained in generall terms, all the parts ofphilosophie both morall and naturall, the thre professions diuinitie, law, physik, all the branches of them all, all the ofsprings of ech, whose instrument speche is -4
The grammar school gave the linguistic basis of grammar, rhetoric, and logic, The university perfected the logic, together with some rhetoric and made the application to the professions of physic, law, and divinity. The universities were professional schools.
If William Shakspere had the grammar school training of his day-or its equivalent he had as good a formal literary training as had any of his contemporaries. At least, no miracles are required to ac-count for such knowledge and techniques from the classics as he exhibits. Stratford grammar school will furnish all that is required. The miracle lies elsewhere; it is the world-old miracle of genius.
By this time the reader should see that it is of no importance at all whether Shakspere did or did not complete grammar school. Erasmus and men of his mind planned a Reformation-Renaissance. Grammar school to them was only one instrument toward this end, not an end in itself. This instrument was to aid in shaping society in certain ways. We have been checking the degree to which Shakspere could and did use this instrument. It snakes no difference whatever whether he learned to use it in grammar school or out. It is this fact which we so frequently overlook in connection with "self-made" men. They have simply had less formal guidance than usual in ac-cumulating the accrued background of the race in their particular field of endeavor. The important thing is that the background is there
3 IbU, p. 6v. 4 Mulcaster, Elementarie (1925), PP. 39-40.