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for searching only. CHAPTER XXXIV
THE RHETORICAL TRAINING OF SHAKSPERE CICERO, TOPICA'
IT WOULD SEEM CLEAR FROM OUR DISCUSSION in the previous chapter that from some source Shakspere had at least a schoolboy knowledge of dd Herennium. It can be made equally dear that Shakspere also had from some source the usual supplementary knowledge of the topics from Cicero's Topica. As we have seen, it was regular practice to use both these works as texts in Elizabethan grammar schools. After the introductory preliminaries, Cicero points out that the loci, or places, or seats of arguments are some extrinsic, others intrinsic. The intrinsic are seated in the whole, the parts, the rota
("Id est, etymologia"),i and in the afectae, of which
alia coniugata appellamus, alia ex genere, alia ex formula, alia ex simili_ tudine, alia ex differentia, alia ex contrario, alia ex adiunctis, alia ex antecedentibus, alia ex consequentibus, alia ex repugnantibus, alia ex causis, alia ex effectis, alia ex comparatione maiorum, aut parium, aut minorum.2
Perhaps a scheme of these main points as presented by Latomus will make dearer the structure of Topica.
Per se Parses 'Genus
Similitudo In ipso Differentia
haeren 'Puri , Contrarium
Ex affe ,Comparata.
Hypothetici Extrinsecus assum
psi: ut testimonia,
turn diuina, turn
Bretschneider, Corpus Reformatorum, Vol. XVI, p. 812.
t Topics (Lambinus, Cleeronis Opera amnia (1573), Vol. I, p. 656).
s In Opines De Arte Rhetorica M. Tvllii Cicerotais Li&ros (Venice, 1546, personal; 1551, per. sonal), Part II, p. 1S9; (Basle, 1541, personal), Part II, p. 365.